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from the Guardian Friday 3 August 2001

Last survivor of a famous first world Christmas Truce
Bertie Felstead

In 1998, some 80 years after the armistice that ended the first world war, the French government, in a gracious and imaginative gesture, awarded the small band of British survivors the Legion díHonneur. Among the recipients was Bertie Felstead, then a lively centenarian living in a Gloucestershire nursing home, and the last surviving participant in the famous Christmas truce of 1915, when British and German forces laid down their weapons and fraternised in no-manís land.

By his own admission, Felstead, who has died aged 106, was an "average" man. Born in London, he was 20 when war broke in August 1914. He had no idea what horrors the next four years would bring, nor could he have foreseen the extent to which the enterprise on which he had embarked would change, irrevocably, the world into which he had been born.

Having no particular preference as to regiment, Felstead made his choice by walking through the first door he came to inside the London recruiting office. So he found himself in the 15th (London Welsh) Battalion, Royal Welch Fusiliers, which eventually numbered 42 battalions, mostly recruited from rural areas, and was to lose nearly 10,000 men in the conflict.

Felstead went to France in 1915, and, on Christmas Eve that year, found himself in a freezing trench near the village of Laventie in northern France.

Much has been written about Christmas Day 1914, and the unofficial truce that took place at various points along the frontline. During the course of the day, officers and men from both sides climbed out of their trenches and crossed into no-manís land to exchange greetings. The writer Henry Williamson, then serving as a private in the London Rifle Brigade, recorded that gifts were passed across as well.

Many years later, talking about his own experience of a similar truce in 1915, Felstead recalled that the sound of German soldiers singing

Silent Night, barely 100 yards away, encouraged the British to respond with Good King Wenceslas. The following day, there was an impromptu kick-about with a football.

This seasonal fraternisation apparently went on for about half an hour, until brought to an abrupt end by a furious British officer, who ordered his men back to the trenches, telling them. in no uncertain terms, the brutal truth of their situation. namely that they were there "to kill the Hun, not make friends with him".

There were other spontaneous truces along the frontline, but, after 1915, they did not reoccur because, by the following Christmas, few British soldiers had the stomach for them. In the intervening period, the British army suffered its worst casualties in a single day, losing nearly 60,000 men on the opening day in Battle of the Somme on July 1 1916.

Felstead was seriously wounded during that battle, and was eventually shipped home to England. The following year, he was posted to Salonika, from where he was eventually invalided home with a serious bout of malaria. Demobilised in 1919, he went to work as a civilian at R.A.F Uxbridge, later moving to a job with the General Electric Company.

In an interview two years before his death, Felstead made a telling comment which explained why the military authorities reacted so strongly against friendly contact with the enemy. Recalling the carols, sung in the trenches on Christmas Eve, he said: "You couldn't hear each other sing like that without it affecting your feelings for the other side?"

Felsteadís wife, Alice, to whom he was married for 65 years, died in 1983. He is survived by two of his three daughters and by 18 grandchildren, great grandchildren and great great grandchildren.

Diana Condell

Bertie Felstead, soldier, born October28 1894; died July22 2001

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